The binning of LEDs is a practice used by LED manufacturers to manage the variation of LED performance that is inherent in the mass production. LEDs of similar appearance to the human eye are put in different boxes, or bins. LEDs from the ‘best’ bins are more expensive. Additionally LED manufacturers often operate slightly different binning policies from each other.
Ceramic metal halide (CMH) lamps combine high output with great colour rendering and good efficiency. They produce light by passing an electric arc through a mixture of gases. In a metal halide lamp, the compact arc tube contains a high-pressure mixture of argon, mercury, and a variety of metal halides.
The UGR method (Unified Glare Rating) is an international index presented by CIE, the international lighting research body, in its publication 117 and is used to evaluate and limit the psychological direct glare from luminaires. Contrary to previous methods where the glare was rated using the luminance values of a single luminaire, this method calculates the glare of the entire lighting installation at a defined observer position.